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From the World Book Online
Earth can be divided into several large systems called spheres. The solid Earth consists of a thin outer layer called the crust. A thick rocky layer called the mantle lies beneath the crust. The crust and the upper portion of the mantle make up a layer of rock called the lithosphere. Much of Earth is covered by a layer of water or ice, called the hydrosphere. Earth is surrounded by a thin layer of air, the atmosphere. The portion of the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere that serves as home to life is called the biosphere.
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Article Source: Bierman, Paul R. "Earth." World Book Student, World Book, 2017, www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar171540.
Image Source: IPCC,. "Schematic View Of The Components Of The Climate System, Their Processes And Interactions." http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/faq-1-2.html.
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Exploratorium - Climate change research explorer
At this Web site, you can explore scientific data relating to the atmosphere, the oceans, the areas covered by ice and snow, and the living organisms in all these domains. You’ll also get a sense of how scientists study natural phenomena—how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions.
Interactions in the Earth System
Examples of interactions between spheres.
The Earth System
PDF about Earth's spheres.
Earth System Science
Information about the interactions between Earth's spheres.
Interactions of the hydrophere
It is important to realise that the hydrosphere is not an isolated system, but rather interacts with other global systems, including the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
Cryosphere, Atmosphere, and Climate
The Division Cryosphere, Atmosphere, and Climate aims at promoting collaborative work and discussion among cryosphere, atmosphere and climate scientists, stimulate model-data comparisons and exchange of information throughout different space time scales.
NASA's Visible Earth
A catalog of NASA images and animations of our home planet
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Research from U.S NOAA about Earth's oceans and atmosphere.
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In the Library
Climate Change by
Call Number: 363.738 BRE
Publication Date: 2007-08-01
Call Number: 551.6 DES
Publication Date: 2007-12-01
Call Number: 333.95 DES
Publication Date: 2007-11-01