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World History - The Industrial Revolution: Civil Engineering

From the World Book Online

Industrial Cities. From the 1500’s to the 1700’s, cities throughout the world grew and gradually changed. But the basic pattern of cities and city life was shaken in the 1700’s and early 1800’s, when a period of rapid industrialization called the Industrial Revolution took place. During this time, many cities in Europe and North America changed greatly. These communities—called industrial cities—became centers of large-scale manufacturing. The manufacturing boom resulted chiefly from the invention of steam engines and new machines. The machines could do the work of many people, and the steam engine easily powered the machines as well as railroads and ships. The expansion of trade among the nations of Europe and North America also aided the growth of manufacturing.

The Industrial Revolution caused dramatic changes in city life. Skilled craftworkers had trouble finding work because machines could make the same products quickly and cheaply. Instead, people in many cities worked in large factories, lived near the factories, and depended on manufacturing jobs for their livelihood. They were often overworked and poorly housed, though living conditions improved during the 1800’s and early 1900’s. Even people in cities with few factories became dependent on manufacturing. They often sold materials to the industrial plants or shipped finished products abroad.

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Source: Clark, Terry Nichols. "City." World Book Student, World Book, 2017, www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar116460. Accessed 26 Nov. 2017.

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